China’s EV industry is moving from massive subsidies to a market-based approach
China is the world’s largest car market with over 25 million vehicles sold in 2019, of which 1.2 million is comprised of EVs – around 55% of all EVs sold in the world that year. Around half of all EVs sold in China are purchased by corporates or government-related entities.
In December 2019, the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) ramped up the bar for EVs by poising that by 2025, 25% of all vehicle sales by 2025 would represent New Energy Vehicles (NEVs) – comprising BEVs (Battery-powered EVs), FCEVs (Fuel Cell powered EVs) and plug-in hybrids – up from the previous 20% target for 2025 that had been set in 2017. In November, the State Council lowered back this target to 20% in its new roadmap for the industry covering the 2021-2035 period (cf. the unofficial translation of the roadmap in appendix). This remains a bold target given that less than 5% of total cars sold in China in 2019 were EVs. As reported by Caixin, the China Society of Automotive Engineers estimated that China’s auto sales would reach an annual figure of 32 million units in 2025. This means that at least 6.4 million NEVs would need to be sold to reach a 20% NEV target.
In addition, earlier this year, in April, the Chinese Authorities announced that they will extend the subsidies granted for buying EVs to 2022, but that they will continue to phase them out. The subsidies will be lowered by 20% in 2021 and by 30% in 2022 and they will apply only to passenger cars sold at prices below 300,000 yuan ($42,376). Currently, the subsidy for purchasing EV cars currently ranges from 16,200 to 22,500 renminbi ($2,350 to $3,265) depending on the car’s range.
In parallel, the Chinese government has committed billions of yuans to support the development of the EV charging infrastructure. According to data released by the China Electric Charging Infrastructure Promotion, as of the end July 2020, there were 1.341 million charging facilities installed across China. According to an article in Power Grid International, the total charging power of all stations across China has reached some 670 million kWh, representing a year on year increase of 52.4 percent.
Chinese provinces and municipalities are speeding up the installation of EV charging infrastructure. In several large Chinese cities, local governments are limiting new license-plate registrations to EVs and lifting restrictions on the purchase of new EVs. Past support policies have created a crowded market with innumerable players which have struggled to cope with a COVID-19 induced sales slump. By all accounts, the pandemic is likely to accelerate a consolidation across the industry already called for by the Chinese government in 2019.
However, China’s support to the EV industry is moving from a quantitative to a qualitative approach and from op-down heavy handed industrial policies to a market based approach supported by environmental incentives. As reported by think tank MacroPolo.Org, “Consumer subsidies that have fueled domestic EV sales have already been reduced significantly and were scheduled to be fully phased out in 2020. What has replaced subsidies is a credit-based mechanism that operates a bit like a carbon market. Commonly known as the “Dual Credit” policy, its EV credit system is a mandate explicitly modeled after the Zero Emissions Vehicles Program (ZEV) implemented in the US state of California.”
The electric battery – or alternatively the fuel cell – together with the electric engine represent the largest components in the cost structure of an electric vehicle. For years, Chinese local EV manufacturers have been boosted by a non-written rule according to which EV manufacturers can benefit from the government’s support and subsidies only if they purchase locally made components, including the most critical parts such as batteries and engines. Over a decade this non-written nurtured the growth of Chinese “EV unicorns” like Shenzhen-based BYD (“Build Your Dreams”) and Ningde-based CATL (Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited). This rule has now been officially discarded by the State Council in the new 2021-2035 EV roadmap.
Beijing had already brought back the “wholly foreign owned enterprises” (WFOEs) market entry model for foreign EV manufacturers, in contrast to mandating joint ventures for foreign auto manufacturers. This policy shift has benefited foreign companies like Volkswagen and BMW that ramped up their EV production in China and most recently to TESLA that built a $2 billion giga factory in China, near Shanghai. It could bring back to earth the hyper inflated valuations of Chinese homegrown EV unicorns like Nio, Xpeng and Li Auto which traded at whopping Price/Sales ratios of 40, 56 and 93 respectively as of November 16, 2020, compared with 15 for Tesla and 2 for GM.
For the time being, despite all the hype surrounding the upscale EV market segment, which is currently dominated by Tesla, and despite the longer term potential of a massification of EVs – whenever carmakers manages to put the equivalent of an affordable “electric Ford-T” on the market -, the near term potential of EVs remains concentrated in distinct market segments such as compact urban EV cars, corporate fleets and electric buses and trucks. Chinese emerging players have a chance to conquer significant market shares in these segments. As reported by AP, “BYD Auto and Japanese truck maker Hino Motors said they are jointly setting up a company to develop battery-powered trucks and buses. The venture is one of a series of tie-ups between Chinese and foreign automakers to share the multibillion-dollar costs of electric development.”
Box: The ascent of CATL
|For years most of the focus has been on BYD which began as a battery maker and then expanded into EV manufacturing. As mentioned by Macropolo, BYD is a major supplier of China bus fleets of which about a fifth were electric as of 2018.|
But in less than ten years, CATL which largely remains a battery “pure player” has turned from being a newcomer to China’s emerging EV scene to become an impressive global leader in battery manufacturing, overcoming Korea’s LG Chem and Japan’s Panasonic. As a sign of its ascent, CATL has been chosen by TESLA to power its Model 3 sedan that is entirely manufactured in its newly built Chinese giga-factory. In addition, CATL has entered into a partnership with Telecom equipment maker Huawei to develop self-driving vehicles.
As a sign of its further global ambitions, CATL invests a fifth of its turnover in R&D. In an employee gathering, the company’s CEO compared the average Chinese EV player to a pig that had been lifted by a typhoon – a vivid metaphor to describe the past reliance of the industry on government subsidies. The pig will now increasingly learn how to fly on its own. CATL is replicating the strategy previously followed by Huawei and other Chinese industrial giants: first sign partnership with foreign companies and then overtake these companiesA.
Appendix: China’s New Energy Automobile Industry Development Plan (2021-2035)
(Unofficial translation. The original document in Chinese can be found here)
State Council (2020) No. 39. October 20, 2020.
The development of new energy vehicles is the only way for my country to move from a major automobile country to a powerful automobile country. It is a strategic measure to address climate change and promote green development. Since the State Council issued the “Energy-saving and New Energy Automobile Industry Development Plan (2012-2020)” in 2012, China has adhered to the strategic orientation of pure electric drive, and the development of the new energy automobile industry has made great achievements, becoming one of the important forces in the development and transformation of the world’s automobile industry. At the same time, the development of China’s new energy vehicles is also facing problems such as weak core technology innovation capabilities, quality assurance systems to be improved, infrastructure construction still lagging behind, industrial ecology is not yet sound, and market competition is increasing. In order to promote the high-quality development of the new energy automobile industry and accelerate the construction of a powerful automobile country, this plan is formulated.
Chapter One. Development Trend
Section 1. New energy vehicles inject new momentum into world economic development
At present, a new round of global technological revolution and industrial transformation are vigorously developing, and related technologies in the fields of automobile and energy, transportation, information and communication are accelerating integration, electrification, networking, and intelligence have become the development trend and trend of the automobile industry. New energy vehicles integrate a variety of transformative technologies such as new energy, new materials and the Internet, big data, and artificial intelligence to promote the transformation of vehicles from simple transportation to mobile smart terminals, energy storage units and digital spaces, and drive energy, transportation, and information The transformation and upgrading of communication infrastructure to promote the optimization of energy consumption structure and the improvement of the intelligent level of transportation system and urban operation is of great significance to building a clean and beautiful world and building a community of shared future for mankind. In recent years, major auto countries in the world have strengthened strategic planning and policy support. Multinational auto companies have increased R&D investment and improved their industrial layout. New energy vehicles have become the main direction of the transformation and development of the global auto industry and an important engine for the continuous growth of the world economy. .
Section 2 China’s new energy vehicles have entered a new stage of accelerated development
The form of automobile products, transportation modes, energy consumption structure, and social operation modes are undergoing profound changes, providing unprecedented development opportunities for the new energy automobile industry. After years of continuous efforts, China’s new energy automobile industry has significantly improved its technological level, its industrial system has become increasingly complete, and its corporate competitiveness has increased significantly. Since 2015, its production, sales, and holdings have ranked first in the world for five consecutive years, and the industry has entered a new stage of superposition, convergence, and integration. It is necessary to seize strategic opportunities, consolidate the good momentum, give full play to the advantages in infrastructure, information and communication and other fields, continuously improve the core competitiveness of the industry, and promote the high-quality and sustainable development of the new energy automobile industry.
Section 3 Integration and opening have become a new feature of the development of new energy vehicles
With the overall transformation of automobile power sources, production and operation methods, and consumption and use patterns, the new energy automobile industry ecology is gradually evolving from the “chain relationship” between parts, vehicle R&D, production, and marketing service companies to an “ecosystem” involving multiple actors in multiple fields, such as transportation and information communications. Mutual empowerment and coordinated development have become the inherent needs for the development and growth of various market entities. Cross-industry, cross-field integration and innovation and more open and inclusive international cooperation have become the characteristics of the era of the development of the new energy automobile industry, which greatly enhances the industrial development momentum and stimulates The market vitality is promoted to form a new pattern of industrial development featuring mutual integration, symbiosis and win-win cooperation.
Chapter 2. Overall Deployment
The first section of the general idea
Guided by Xi Jinping’s thoughts on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, adhere to the development concepts of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, take the deepening of supply-side structural reforms as the main line, and adhere to the development direction of electrification, connectivity, and intelligence. Implementing the national strategy for the development of new energy vehicles, focusing on integration and innovation, breaking through key core technologies, enhancing basic industrial capabilities, building a new industrial ecology, improving infrastructure systems, optimizing the industrial development environment, and promoting the high-quality and sustainable development of China’s new energy automotive industry to accelerate the construction of a powerful automobile country.
Section 2 Basic Principles
Market-led. Give full play to the decisive role of the market in the allocation of resources, and strengthen the dominant position of enterprises in the selection of technical routes and the construction of production and service systems; better use of the government’s strategic planning and guidance, standard and regulatory development, quality and safety supervision, market order maintenance, and green Consumption guidance and other aspects to create a good environment for industrial development.
Innovation driven. Deeply implement the innovation-driven development strategy, establish an enterprise-based, market-oriented, and industry-university-research-application-based technological innovation system, improve the institutional environment that encourages and protect innovation, encourage the parallel development of multiple technological routes, and support various entities to work together to overcome the key Core technologies, increase business model innovation, and form a new industrial innovation ecosystem.
Coordinated advancement. Improve the coordination and promotion mechanism of horizontal coordination and vertical connection, promote the deep integration of new energy vehicles with energy, transportation, and information and communication, and coordinate the promotion of technology research and development, standard formulation, popularization and application and infrastructure construction, and transform the super-large-scale market advantage into industrial advantage.
Open development. Practicing the cooperation concept of openness, integration, mutual benefit and win-win, expand high-level opening to the outside world, and promote reform, development and innovation through openness; adhere to the combination of “bringing in” and “going out”, strengthening international cooperation, and actively participating in international competition , To cultivate new advantages in the new energy automobile industry, and deeply integrate into the global industrial chain and value chain system.
Section 3 Development Vision
By 2025, the competitiveness of China’s new energy vehicle market will be significantly enhanced, major breakthroughs will be made in key technologies such as power batteries, drive motors, and vehicle operating systems, and the safety level will be comprehensively improved. The average power consumption of new pure electric passenger vehicles will have dropped to 12.0 kWh/100 kilometers, the sales of new energy vehicles will reach about 20% of the total sales of new vehicles, and highly autonomous vehicles have achieved commercial applications in restricted areas and specific scenarios. The convenience of battery exchange service will be significantly improved.
After 15 years of continuous efforts, China’s new energy vehicle core technology will reach the international advanced level, and the quality brand will have strong international competitiveness. Pure electric vehicles will become the mainstream of new sales vehicles, public vehicles are fully electrified, fuel cell vehicles will be commercialized, highly autonomous vehicles will be applied on a large scale, the charging service network will be convenient and efficient, and the hydrogen fuel supply system will be steadily progressing. , effectively promoting the improvement of energy saving and emission reduction level and social operation efficiency.
Chapter III Improving Technological Innovation Capability
The first section deepens the “three vertical and three horizontal” R&D layout
Strengthen the innovation of vehicle integration technology. With pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid (including extended range) vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles as the “three verticals”, the whole vehicle technology innovation chain is laid out. Research and develop a new generation of modular high-performance vehicle platform, research on the integration of pure electric vehicle chassis design and multi-energy power system integration technology, break through common energy-saving technologies such as intelligent energy management control, lightweight, and low friction of the entire vehicle, and improve battery management, The level of safety technology such as charging connection and structural design will improve the overall performance of new energy vehicles.
Improve the basic capabilities of the industry. Take power battery and management system, drive motor and power electronics, network connection and intelligent technology as the “three horizontals” to build a key component technology supply system. Carry out advanced modular power battery and fuel cell system technology research, explore new generation vehicle motor drive system solutions, strengthen the development of key components and systems for intelligent networked vehicles, and make breakthroughs in computing and control basic platform technology, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicle application support Technology and other bottlenecks, and improve the research and development capabilities of basic key technologies, advanced basic processes, basic core components, and key basic materials.
|Box 1 New energy vehicle core technology research project|
|Implement battery technology breakthrough actions. Carry out research on key core technologies such as positive and negative electrode materials, electrolytes, diaphragms, and membrane electrodes, and strengthen the technical breakthroughs of high-strength, lightweight, high-safety, low-cost, and long-life power batteries and fuel cell systems, and accelerate solid-state power batteries Technology research and development and industrialization.|
Implement the intelligent network technology innovation project. Taking new energy vehicles as the carrier of the first application of intelligent network technology, supporting enterprise cross-border collaboration, researching and developing key technologies such as complex environment fusion perception, intelligent network connection decision-making and control, cyber-physical system architecture design, etc., making breakthroughs in the on-board intelligent computing platform and high precision Core technologies and products such as map and positioning, wireless communication ( V2X ) between the vehicle and other equipment outside the vehicle , and wire control execution system. Implement new energy vehicle basic technology upgrade projects. Break through key technologies and products such as automotive-grade chips, automotive operating systems, new electronic and electrical architectures, and high-efficiency high-density drive motor systems, and overcome hydrogen fuel cell vehicle application support technologies such as hydrogen energy storage and transportation, hydrogen refueling stations, and on-board hydrogen storage. Support the R&D and innovation of basic common technologies such as basic components, key production equipment, high-end test instruments, development tools, and high-performance automatic testing equipment, and tackle key issues in the intelligent manufacturing of new energy vehicles, including massive heterogeneous data organization analysis, and integrated control of reconfigurable flexible manufacturing systems, etc. Key technologies include the industrial application of key materials such as high-performance aluminum-magnesium alloys, fiber-reinforced composite materials, and low-cost rare earth permanent magnet materials.
Section 2 Speed up the construction of a common technology innovation platform
Establish and improve the joint research and development mechanism of leading enterprises, national key laboratories, and national manufacturing innovation centers, focus on shortcomings in core processes, special materials, key components, and manufacturing equipment, and actively explore different technological paths to increase the supply of key common technologies ability. Guide cross-field cooperation in automobiles, energy, transportation, information and communication, establish a future-oriented new energy vehicle, smart energy, and intelligent transportation integration innovation platform, jointly research key basic and cross-key technologies, and enhance the integration and innovation capabilities of new energy vehicles and related industries.
Section 3 Enhance the industry’s public service capabilities
Relying on industry associations, innovation centers and other institutions to coordinate and promote the co-construction and sharing of various innovation service platforms, and improve public service support capabilities such as technology transfer, information services, talent training, project financing, and international exchanges. Apply virtual reality, big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies to establish a vehicle electrification, network connection, intelligent virtual simulation and test verification platform to improve the measurement test, performance evaluation and inspection and certification capabilities of the entire vehicle and key components.
Chapter 4 Building a New Industrial Ecosystem
Section 1 Supporting the development of ecosystem-led enterprises
Encourage cross-industry collaboration among companies in the fields of new energy vehicles, energy, transportation, information and communications, and create industries covering solutions, R&D and production, use guarantees, and operational services through open cooperation and benefit sharing around diversified production and diversified application needs Eco-led enterprise in the key link of the chain. In areas with a good industrial foundation and agglomeration of innovative elements, the leading enterprises will play a leading role, cultivate a number of upstream and downstream collaborative innovation, the integration of large and small enterprises, and the new energy automobile industry clusters with international influence and competitiveness, and enhance the modernization level of the industrial chain.
Section 2 Promote innovative applications of key systems
Speed up the development and application of operating systems for vehicles. Driven by the needs of vehicle companies, we will give full play to the role of innovation platforms such as leading companies and national manufacturing innovation centers, adhere to the collaborative research of software and hardware, and focus on the development of automotive operating systems. Around the vehicle operating system, build a development and application ecosystem of in-depth cooperation between market players in the fields of complete vehicles, key components, basic data and software. Through rapid product iteration, the scale of users will be expanded and the industrial application of automotive operating systems will be accelerated.
|Box 2 Ecosystem Construction Actions for Vehicle Operating Systems|
|Adapt to the needs of intelligent application of new energy vehicles, encourage enterprises in the fields of complete vehicles and parts, the Internet, electronic information, and communications to form alliances, with the development and application of vehicle operating systems as the core, and through iterative upgrades to improve the performance of operating systems and applications Security, reliability, and convenience, expand the scale of applications, and form a good ecosystem of open sharing and collaborative evolution.|
Promote the development of the entire value chain of power batteries. Encourage enterprises to improve their ability to guarantee key resources such as lithium, nickel, cobalt, and platinum. Establish and improve the modularized standard system for power batteries, accelerate breakthroughs in key manufacturing equipment, and improve process level and production efficiency. Improve the recycling system of power battery recovery, cascade utilization and re-resources, and encourage the construction of shared recycling channels. Establish and improve the management system of power battery transportation and storage, repair and maintenance, safety inspection, decommissioning and exit, recycling and utilization, and strengthen the supervision of the whole life cycle.
|Box 3 Building an efficient recycling system for power batteries|
|Based on the sustainable development of new energy vehicles, implement the extended producer responsibility system, strengthen the construction of the traceability management platform for power batteries of new energy vehicles, and realize the traceability of the full life cycle of power batteries. Support the innovative application of power battery cascade products in the fields of energy storage, energy reserve, charging and replacement, and strengthen the research and development of residual energy detection, residual value evaluation, restructuring and utilization, and safety management. Optimize the layout of the recycling industry, promote the efficient extraction of valuable elements from waste power batteries, and promote the development of industrial resources, high value, and green development.|
Section 3 Improve the level of intelligent manufacturing
Promote the in-depth application of intelligent technology in key links such as new energy vehicle research and development, manufacturing, warehousing and logistics, operation management, and after-sales service. Accelerate the development and integration of core industrial software such as simulation, management, and control of intelligent manufacturing of new energy vehicles, and carry out application demonstrations in smart factories and digital workshops. Accelerate the promotion and application of the product life cycle collaborative management system, support the construction of an integrated demonstration platform for design, manufacturing, and service, and improve the intelligence level of the entire industrial chain of new energy vehicles.
Section 4 Strengthen Quality and Safety Guarantee
Promote quality brand building. Carry out new energy vehicle product quality improvement actions, guide companies to strengthen the development and application of reliability technology in the whole process of design, manufacturing, testing and verification, make full use of advanced technologies such as the Internet, big data, and blockchain to improve product life cycle quality control and traceability mechanism. Guide enterprises to strengthen brand development strategies, and strengthen brand building with the focus on improving quality and service levels.
Improve the safety guarantee system. Implement a safety production mechanism that combines corporate responsibility, government supervision, industry self-discipline, and social supervision. Strengthen the main responsibility of the company for product safety, implement the extended manufacturer’s responsibility system, and strengthen the quality and safety management, safety status monitoring and maintenance testing of key systems such as complete vehicles and power batteries and electronic controls. Improve the safety standards and regulations of new energy vehicles, parts, repair and maintenance testing, charging and replacement, and strengthen safety production supervision and management and new energy vehicle safety recall management. Encourage industry organizations to strengthen technical exchanges, sort out and summarize experience, and guide enterprises to continuously improve their safety levels.
Chapter 5 Promoting the development of industrial integration
The first section promotes the development of new energy vehicles and energy integration
Strengthen the energy interaction between new energy vehicles and the power grid (V2G). Strengthen the research of high-cycle life power battery technology and promote the application of low-power DC technology. Encourage local governments to develop V2G demonstration applications, coordinate the charging and discharging of new energy vehicles, power dispatching needs, comprehensively use policies such as peak and valley electricity prices, and new energy vehicle charging preferential policies to achieve efficient interaction between new energy vehicles and the power grid, and reduce the cost of new energy vehicles. Improve the response capabilities of power grid peaking and frequency modulation and safety emergency.
Promote efficient synergy between new energy vehicles and renewable energy. Promote information sharing and integration of new energy vehicles and meteorological and renewable energy power forecasting systems, coordinate the use of new energy vehicles and coordinated dispatch of wind power and photovoltaic power generation, and increase the proportion of renewable energy applications. Encourage the construction of a multi-functional integrated station of “optical storage charge and discharge” (distributed photovoltaic power generation-energy storage system-charge and discharge). Support regions where conditions permit to carry out commercial demonstration operations of fuel cell vehicles.
The second section promotes the integrated development of new energy vehicles and transportation
Develop integrated smart travel services. Speed up the construction of a new type of intelligent traffic control system covering front-end information collection, edge distributed computing, and cloud collaborative control. Accelerate the application of new energy vehicles in time-sharing leasing, urban public transport, taxis, and field vehicles, and optimize the use of new energy vehicles in the public service sector. Guide automobile manufacturers and travel service companies to jointly build a “one-stop” service platform to promote the development and application of automatic valet parking technology.
Build an intelligent green logistics transportation system. Promote the application of new energy vehicles in urban distribution, port operations and other fields to facilitate the passage of new energy trucks. Develop “Internet +” efficient logistics, innovate smart logistics operation models, promote the application of new models such as network freight and trailer sharing, and create a new format of safe and efficient logistics transportation services.
Section 3 Promote the integrated development of new energy vehicles and information communication
Promote efficient collaboration of “people-vehicle-road-cloud” with data as the link. Based on vehicle perception, traffic control, city management and other information, build a “people-vehicle-road-cloud” multi-layer data fusion and computing processing platform, carry out demonstration applications in specific scenarios, regions and roads, and promote the integration of new energy vehicles and information communication Application service innovation.
Create a network security guarantee system. Improve the new energy vehicle network security management system, build a unified vehicle identity authentication and security trust system, promote the in-depth application of cryptographic technology, strengthen the safety testing of vehicle information systems, service platforms and key electronic components, and strengthen the classification and integration of new energy vehicle data Regulate application management, improve risk assessment, early warning and monitoring, and emergency response mechanisms to ensure information security in all links of “vehicle end-transmission network-cloud”.
Section 4 Strengthen standard docking and data sharing
Establish a comprehensive standard system for the integration and development of new energy vehicles and related industries, and clarify technical interface standards such as vehicle operating systems, vehicle basic maps, vehicle pile information sharing, and cloud control basic platforms. Establish a cross-industry and cross-field comprehensive big data platform to promote the co-construction, sharing and interconnection of various data.
|Box 4 New Energy Vehicle Application Demonstration Action in Smart City|
|Carry out comprehensive demonstrations of intelligent and orderly charging, the integration of new energy vehicles and renewable energy, urban infrastructure and inter-city intelligent transportation, and heterogeneous multi-mode communication network integration, and support urban unmanned logistics with intelligent networked vehicles as the carrier Distribution, municipal sanitation, rapid transit system ( BRT ), automatic valet parking and demonstration applications in specific scenarios.|
Chapter VI Improving the Infrastructure System
Section 1 Vigorously promote the construction of charging and swapping networks
Speed up the construction of charging and replacing infrastructure. Scientifically arrange the charging and replacement infrastructure, and strengthen the overall coordination with urban and rural construction planning, power grid planning, property management, and urban parking. Relying on the “Internet +” smart energy, improve the level of intelligence, actively promote the smart orderly slow charging as the main charging service mode in residential areas, and emergency fast charging as a supplement, and accelerate the formation of a moderately advanced, fast charging as the main and slow charging as a supplement Highways and urban and rural public charging networks encourage the development of battery swap mode applications, strengthen the research and development of new charging technologies such as intelligent and orderly charging, high-power charging, and wireless charging to improve charging convenience and product reliability.
Improve the service level of charging infrastructure. Guide enterprises to jointly establish a charging facility operation service platform to realize interconnection, information sharing and unified settlement. Strengthen the research and development of charging equipment and power distribution system safety monitoring and early warning technologies, standardize the electromagnetic spectrum use of wireless charging facilities, improve the safety, consistency, and reliability of charging facilities, and improve the level of service guarantees.
Encourage business model innovation. Combining with the renovation of old communities and urban renewal, we will guide multiple parties to jointly carry out the construction and operation of charging facilities, and support the development of cooperation models such as multiple vehicles and one vehicle in residential areas and sharing of adjacent parking spaces. Encourage the combination of charging stations and commercial real estate, build integrated parking and charging service facilities, improve the charging service capabilities of public places, and expand value-added services. Improve the charging facility insurance system to reduce the risks of enterprise operations and users.
Section 2 Coordinate and promote the construction of intelligent road network facilities
Promote the construction of a new generation of wireless communication networks, and accelerate the formulation and technological upgrading of wireless communication (C-V2X) standards between vehicles based on cellular communication technology and other equipment outside the vehicle. Promote the digital transformation and upgrading of road infrastructure such as traffic signs and markings, strengthen the intelligent interconnection between traffic lights, traffic signs and markings, communication facilities, intelligent roadside equipment, and on-board terminals, and promote the formulation and development of relevant standards for the intelligent construction and transformation of urban road infrastructure Management platform construction. Speed up the construction of differential base stations and promote the application of Beidou and other satellite navigation systems in the field of high-precision positioning.
Section 3 Orderly promote the construction of hydrogen fuel supply system
Improve the economy of hydrogen fuel production, storage and transportation. Carry out the application of industrial by-product hydrogen and renewable energy hydrogen production technology according to local conditions, and accelerate the industrialization of advanced and applicable hydrogen storage materials. Carry out high-pressure gas, cryogenic gas, low-temperature liquid and solid storage and transportation technology demonstration applications, explore the construction of hydrogen fuel transportation pipelines, and gradually reduce the cost of hydrogen fuel storage and transportation. Improve the standard system for hydrogen fuel production, storage, transportation, and filling. Strengthen hydrogen fuel safety research and strengthen safety supervision of the entire chain.
Promote the construction of hydrogenation infrastructure. Establish and improve management standards for hydrogenation infrastructure. Guide enterprises to rationally lay out hydrogen refueling infrastructure based on hydrogen fuel supply and consumption demand to improve safe operation. Support the use of existing sites and facilities to develop integrated supply services of oil, gas, hydrogen and electricity.
|Box 5 Building an intelligent infrastructure service platform|
|Coordinate the formulation and revision of standards for charging and replacement technologies and interfaces, hydrogen refueling technologies and interfaces, vehicle hydrogen storage devices, vehicle communication protocols, intelligent road construction, data transmission and settlement, etc., and build a standard system for infrastructure interconnection. Guide enterprises to build intelligent infrastructure, high-precision dynamic maps, cloud-controlled basic data and other service platforms, carry out pilot demonstrations of comprehensive services such as charging and replacing electricity, hydrogen refueling, and intelligent transportation, and realize the interconnection and intelligent management of infrastructure.|
Chapter VII Deepening Open Cooperation
Section 1 Expanding opening up and exchanges and cooperation
Strengthen the connection with internationally accepted economic and trade rules, fully implement the pre-access national treatment plus negative list management system, treat the players in the new energy market equally, and build a market-oriented, legalized, and international business environment. Give full play to the role of multilateral and bilateral cooperation mechanisms and high-level dialogue mechanisms, and support domestic and foreign enterprises, research institutes, and industry institutions to conduct exchanges and cooperation in R&D and design, trade and investment, infrastructure, technical standards, and personnel training. Actively participate in the formulation of international rules and standards, promote the formation of an open, transparent and inclusive international market environment for new energy vehicles, create a new platform for international cooperation, and add new driving forces for common development.
Section 2 Accelerate integration into the global value chain
Guide enterprises to formulate international development strategies, continuously improve international competitiveness, increase international market development, and promote industrial cooperation from the production and manufacturing links to the entire chain of technology research and development, marketing, and so on. Encourage enterprises to make full use of domestic and foreign funds to establish an international consumer credit system. Support enterprises to establish an international marketing service network and jointly build service platforms such as overseas warehousing and after-sales service centers in key markets. Improve service guarantee systems such as legal consultation, testing and certification, and talent training, guide enterprises to regulate overseas operations, and improve compliance management.
Chapter 8 Safeguard Measures
Section 1: Deepen industry management reform
Deepen the reform of “decentralization, regulation and service”, further relax market access, implement inclusive and prudent supervision, and promote the healthy and orderly development of new business formats and new models. Improve the parallel management method of the average fuel consumption of enterprises and new energy vehicle points, effectively undertake the fiscal subsidy policy, and study the establishment of a linkage mechanism with the carbon trading market. Strengthen supervision during and after the event, consolidate the main responsibilities of local governments, and curb chaos such as blindly launching new energy vehicle manufacturing projects. Promote the improvement of relevant laws and regulations on road motor vehicle production and management, establish and improve the exit mechanism of zombie enterprises, strengthen the supervision and inspection of the maintenance of enterprise access conditions, and promote the survival of the fittest. Give full play to the role of the market mechanism, support the merger and reorganization, expansion and strengthening of advantageous enterprises, and further increase industrial concentration.
Section 2 Improve the system of policies and regulations
Implement tax incentives related to new energy vehicles, optimize classified traffic management and financial services and other measures. Promote the scientific layout and speed up construction of infrastructure such as charging and swapping and hydrogen refueling, and provide financial support for the construction of charging piles as public facilities. Break local protection and establish a unified open and fair market system. Encourage local governments to increase support for vehicle operations in public services, shared travel and other fields, and give preferential policies for parking and charging new energy vehicles. Starting from 2021, the proportion of new energy vehicles in public areas in the national ecological civilization pilot zone and key areas for air pollution prevention and control will not be less than 80%. Formulate specific measures to incorporate new energy vehicle R&D investment into the state-owned enterprise assessment system. Accelerate the improvement of policies and regulations on road traffic, accident liability, and data usage that meet the requirements of the development of intelligent networked vehicles. Accelerate the promotion of power battery recycling legislation.
Section 3 Strengthen the construction of talent team
Accelerate the establishment of a talent training mechanism that meets the needs of the integration and development of new energy vehicles and related industries, compile a catalog of talents in short supply in the industry, optimize the discipline layout in the fields of automotive electrification, interconnection, and intelligence, and guide universities, research institutes, and enterprises to increase The introduction and training of international talents. Carry forward the spirit of entrepreneurship and craftsmanship, establish a positive incentive orientation, and implement diversified incentive measures such as equity and options.
Section 4 Strengthen Intellectual Property Protection
Deepen the implementation of the national intellectual property strategy and encourage scientific researchers to develop high-value core intellectual property achievements in the field of new energy vehicles. Strictly implement the intellectual property protection system and increase the enforcement of infringements. Build a new energy vehicle intellectual property operation service system, strengthen the construction of a patent application transformation platform, and establish a patent operation model of mutual benefit, sharing and cooperation.
Section 5 Strengthen Organizational Coordination
Give full play to the role of the inter-ministerial joint conference system and local coordination mechanism for the development of energy-saving and new energy automobile industry, strengthen departmental coordination and interaction between the top and bottom, formulate annual work plans and division of departmental tasks, and strengthen new energy vehicles and energy, transportation, information and communication industries in industries The overall planning of policy planning, standards and regulations, and other aspects, pay close attention to the major tasks and key tasks determined in the plan. All relevant departments should focus on planning goals and tasks, and formulate their own work plans and supporting policies and measures according to the division of functions. All regions should implement the implementation in light of local conditions, optimize the industrial layout, and avoid duplication of construction. Industry organizations should give full play to the role of bridges connecting enterprises and governments, and coordinate the formation of cross-industry exchanges and collaboration platforms. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology shall, in conjunction with relevant departments, conduct in-depth investigations and studies, strengthen tracking and guidance, and promote the smooth implementation of the plan.